Flexible routes and terminal procedures. Reduced emission, noise and controller workload. Fuel saving and increased safety while improving capacity and efficiency. Last but not least, new market opportunities in weather and terrain challenged destinations.
PBN reduces emissions by saving fuel as it allows aircraft to descend from high altitudes to airports at minimum thrust setting and also through shorter flight tracks. It also helps cut noise levels, reduce controllers’ workload and increase the level of safety. Last but not least, it also creates new market opportunities by providing safe access to terrain and weather challenged destinations.
Providers have to meet new requirements such as reduction of fuel consumption, mitigation of emission and improved noise abatement. At the same time safety and the regularity and efficiency of air traffic have also to be maintained.
The growth in air traffic brings more and more conflicts at the intersections of routes, departure and arrival procedures. Solving these situations increases the workload on the air traffic controllers thus reducing their capacity to deal with efficiency.
Due to these factors flight profiles are getting farther and farther away from ideal and delays are building up both on the ground and in the air. Chasing efficiency while applying dated procedures may easily lead to high-energy and, subsequently, missed approaches. It means further unnecessary fuel burn, emission and noise and on top of that they represent safety implications as well. Apart from that it may also imply ineffective utilisation of the capacity of served airports.
As demand for air transportation services increases ANSPs are facing a challenge to safely increase capacity and efficiency. The challenge is to overcome the limitations of reliance upon conventional ground-based navigation aids as they do not permit the flexibility of point-to-point operations.
by saving fuel as it allows aircraft to descend from high altitudes to airports at minimum thrust setting and also through shorter flight tracks. Noise levels can also be reduced on account of the optimised profile descents and via consistent, precise paths that avoid noise sensitive areas.
as it reduces the number of conflicts by enabling more closely spaced parallel tracks. They increase the level of safety by reducing the risk of CFIT accidents as well. It also creates new market opportunities by providing safe access to terrain and weather challenged destinations.
the measurement of the traffic demand, assessment of the adherent route network, navigational facilities, ATM system, and the survey of the local aptitudes and geographical peculiarities.
New versions of routes and terminal procedures that are as close to the theoretic optimum as possible are designed according to these attributes.
are used to test the different versions. We record all relevant parameters, such as total and specific numbers for distance and time travelled, fuel burnt, noise strain, entry rate and occupancy of different airspace sections, air and ground delays, utilisation of available capacities, number of conflicts. Customised statistics can also be created; even controllers’ workload factors can be estimated through Artificial Intelligence.
Selected scenarios will be validated by means of a Real-Time Simulation with the contribution of air traffic controllers proficient in the given airspace on our state-of-the-art simulation platform that reproduces the HMI of their “home” ATM system.
The results of this validation will be drawn from the same set of parameters that are recorded during the simulation together with specific “Human-in-the-Loop” parameters such as objective data for number and length of radio and telephone calls, number of co-ordination events, number of medium and short term conflict alerts, number of specific instructions performed through the HMI (direct clearance, turn, speed and level change, etc.).
Also, subjective workload assessment (ISA) data is gathered as well as subjective reflection on safety issues, hotspots, procedures, workload and situational awareness through questionnaires (NASA-TLX, SASHA-Q).
The simulation environment prepared for the validation can be utilised later on for the training of air traffic control personnel.
Following the implementation of the solution the real change of the relevant parameters can be evaluated from real-life recorded data through Fast-Time Simulation and the solution can be fine-tuned as necessary.